About Adoptee Rage

Statistics Identify large populations of Adoptees in prisons, mental hospitals and committed suicide.
Fifty years of scientific studies on child adoption resulting in psychological harm to the child and
poor outcomes for a child's future.
Medical and psychological attempts to heal the broken bonds of adoption, promote reunions of biological parents and adult children. The other half of attempting to repair a severed Identity is counselling therapy to rebuild the self.

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

Two Versions of Adopted Childhood Vs. Abusive Adopted Childhood

ADOPTEE RAGE!

Two Different Versions of Abusive Adopted Childhood
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The dramatic contrast in the Adoptee's memory of their stressful childhood maltreatment is quite different than the adoptive mother's selective memory. 

The adoptive mother's recall of the adopted child's childhood is filled with what great efforts she made to accomplish the endeavor. The only bad memories that she remembers is the bad adolescent adopted-child that she had to tolerate and live through. Although she doesn't remember the drinking, the partying, or the constant marital fighting in front of the children. The inappropriate family outings to restaurants and bars, 
the gambling trips to the race tracks, where the kids sat alone in motel rooms fighting with each other during trips to Las Vegas. The mother doesn't recall all of the fighting about money all the way home from these adult themed gambling weekends. 
The psychological denial chronic marital fighting, jealousy, physical violence, favoritism, isolation and scapegoating are dismissed under the social radar of the perfect home and family.

It seems as though adopted childhood is separated from the reality of the general family dysfunction which is not remembered either and is denied. The mother's fantasy recollection of the adopted childhood is a consistent story of both adoptive parent's total dedication efforts to the adopted child's best interests, that is consistent with adoption agency marketing. This fantasy would have been a great place to grow up and would have produced emotionally stable, self-esteemed and confident, productive adults. However this was not the outcome of the children of the family.

Cognitive Dissonance to deny one's past, self behaviors to preserve one's ego. "CD" is one of the possible reasons for the denial of facts of one person, and the children that experienced those same events all have a similar factual account of events.

Regardless of who admits or denies the truths that occurred, the damage from Childhood Emotional Abuse remains in the child-now adult.

Childhood Emotional Abuse:

What Is Emotional Abuse?

Emotional abuse of a child is commonly defined as a pattern of behavior by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child’s cognitive, emotional, psychological or social development. Emotional abuse of a child — also referred to as psychological maltreatment — can include:
Ignoring. Either physically or psychologically, the parent or caregiver is not present to respond to the child. He or she may not look at the child and may not call the child by name. Rejecting. This is an active refusal to respond to a child’s needs (e.g., refusing to touch a child, denying the needs of a child, ridiculing a child).
  • Isolating. The parent or caregiver consistently prevents the child from having normal social interactions with peers, family members and adults. This also may include confining the child or limiting the child’s freedom of movement.
  • Exploiting or corrupting. In this kind of abuse, a child is taught, encouraged or forced to develop inappropriate or illegal behaviors. It may involve self-destructive or antisocial acts of the parent or caregiver, such as teaching a child how to steal or forcing a child into prostitution.
  • Verbally assaulting. This involves constantly belittling, shaming, ridiculing or verbally threatening the child.
  • Terrorizing. Here, the parent or caregiver threatens or bullies the child and creates a climate of fear for the child. Terrorizing can include placing the child or the child’s loved one (such as a sibling, pet or toy) in a dangerous or chaotic situation, or placing rigid or unrealistic expectations on the child with threats of harm if they are not met.
  • Neglecting the child. This abuse may include educational neglect, where a parent or caregiver fails or refuses to provide the child with necessary educational services; mental health neglect, where the parent or caregiver denies or ignores a child’s need for treatment for psychological problems; or medical neglect, where a parent or caregiver denies or ignores a child’s need for treatment for medical problems.While the definition of emotional abuse is often complex and imprecise, professionals agree that, for most parents, occasional negative attitudes or actions are not considered emotional abuse. Even the best of parents have occasions when they have momentarily “lost control” and said hurtful things to their children, failed to give them the attention they wanted or unintentionally scared them.What is truly harmful, according to James Garbarino, a national expert on emotional abuse, is the persistent, chronic pattern that “erodes and corrodes a child” (1994). Many experts concur that emotional abuse is typically not an isolated incident.

    What Are the Effects of Emotional Abuse?

    Douglas Besharov states in Recognizing Child Abuse: A Guide for the Concerned, “Emotional abuse is an assault on the child’s psyche, just as physical abuse is an assault on the child’s body”(1990). Children who are constantly ignored, shamed, terrorized or humiliated suffer at least as much, if not more, than if they are physically assaulted. Danya Glaser (2002) finds that emotional abuse can be “more strongly predictive of subsequent impairments in the children’s development than the severity of physical abuse.”
    An infant who is severely deprived of basic emotional nurturance, even though physically well cared for, can fail to thrive and can eventually die. Babies with less severe emotional deprivation can grow into anxious and insecure children who are slow to develop and who have low self-esteem.
    Although the visible signs of emotional abuse in children can be difficult to detect, the hidden scars of this type of abuse manifest in numerous behavioral ways, including insecurity, poor self-esteem,destructive behavior, angry acts (such as fire setting and animal cruelty), withdrawal, poor development of basic skills, alcohol or drug abuse, suicide, difficulty forming relationships and unstable job histories.
    Emotionally abused children often grow up thinking that they are deficient in some way. A continuing tragedy of emotional abuse is that, when these children become parents, they may continue the cycle with their own children.
  

Monday, February 22, 2016

Dysfunctional Adoption Dynamics

ADOPTEE RAGE!

Dysfunctional Adoption Dynamics
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As an adopted infant, the justification for my existence was to fill the void in my grieving adoptive mother's depression. The simple fact that I failed to supply the fix that my purpose justified, I was rejected as useful to the adoptive parents.

My existence in the adoptive family proved to be a caregiving and psychological burden to the adoptive mother. The problem of having an outsider needy infant that was constantly dirty, soiled and was crying created more family disharmony than already existed. 

The only human logic that can justify the tolerance of an outsider is to use them for a purpose to meet one's own needs. To pretend to befriend someone, to tolerate them and keep them at a distance from emotional contagion.

The emotional discounting of the outsider person's value was shared among the family group as the coping strategy that my dysfunctional family used.  Everyone has experienced a friend's kid that they just don't like, as this is a universal ambiguity.

The devalued family member is labeled the scapegoat, where all of the family problems is attributed to. The adopted child is conditioned from being seen as suspicious, the trouble maker and the punishments assigned are well deserved. The adopted child is isolated, excluded and treated differently from the family unit, where they do not belong. They are manipulated, lied to and see themselves as a complete failure. The adopted child's self-esteem is a measure of the dysfunctional relationship that reflects how they are treated by the family members.

The adoptive mother tries to claim some social status rewards from her social circles in her toleration of the vilified adopted child. Some adoptive mothers enjoy more sympathy than social status in parenting a bad adopted child. They prefer the martyr status of their loving and eternal giving that is thrown back in their face by selfish children. 

As the award winning adoptive mother status only lasts so long and the on-going drama of raising a selfish child keeps growing and changing in the dynamic circumstances and characteristics of each futile situation. That makes for far more interesting story telling and empathy from friends continues on as long as the conflict lasts.

The adopted child that is conditioned with fear early in life is developmentally arrested, their developmental milestones are never mastered and they perform poorly at emotionally self-regulating as adults. These adopted child characteristics make great objects for psychological manipulation, triangulation and
gas-lighting tactics. The adopted child's cognition and experiences of events can't be trusted so their words are ignored. 

The adopted child is an invalid human being that no one would take seriously, much less themselves. They have no value in society after their childhood has been used. Their purpose has been served, so all they have left is dependence on their abuser. The adult adopted child continues to supply the narcissistic parent with meeting their emotional needs, constantly making social mistakes that the adoptive parent willingly continues to manage and engage the dysfunctional abuse cycle. The parent continues to receive empathy from friendly gossip while having their narcissistic needs fed by the adult adopted child.

Saturday, February 20, 2016

Adoptive Parent's Deception and Lying

ADOPTEE RAGE!

Adoptive Parent's Lying and Deception
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The deception by parents is a universally manipulating tactic used to gain selfish effects, at the expense of the child's trust.


The adoptive parent's intentional verbal deception directed at the adopted child is motivated by the parent's needs, wants and desires.  The adopted child is manipulated to the worst extent with lies that cover up who the child truly is. The adoption industry deceives adoptive parents with outdated psychological tactics that are proven to cause more harm than good. 
Phrases and marketing slogans that sugarcoat the unpleasant adoption related facts and transform the terrible truth of being abandoned by the biological mother into words like "chosen" to describe how happy the child should feel. Yet the adopted child's reality is not made happy by the word chosen, when in fact the word chosen means to the adoptee "chosen to be abandoned", "chosen to be an outsider" and "chosen to suffer from a false identity". The adopted child will pacify the adoptive parents by pretending and acting out the good "adopted child role" to please their adoptive parents and survive the 18 year ordeal. 
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When adoptive parents lie to their children they are hurting them deeply. When a child knows the truth and when his parents contradict this knowledge, the child ends up doubting himself. Healthy children learn to trust their inner sense of right and wrong at a young age because their parents encourage this. This teaches the child that he is a reliable source of accurate information and a capable resource for the truth. When a child is told that his truth is a lie, his self-doubt generalizes to a distrust of the outside world. Children will begin to act out in response to the contradiction they are being told; what they know is true, is untrue. Being able to trust oneself as a child is a building block for a healthy personality.
When parents tell a child that what they know to be true, in fact is not, they cause their child to choose between trusting themselves and trusting their parents. This is not a choice a child can make and remain intact and healthy.
Adopted children are not gullible and they can in fact sense when parents are lying to them, causing them to distrust the very people who are their caretakers. Children also know when parents are withholding information, exaggerating and changing the truth.
Adoptive parents say that they want to protect their children from the truth, but they are manipulating the truth for their own benefit and perception of how they wish their world to be.
Deceiving the adopted child and lying leaves children still knowing the truth and wondering why their parents are lying about it.  Lying to adopted children teaches them to lie themselves, creating a self fulfilling prophecy like the parents, tell lies about how they wish their world could be. In the end the adult adoptee realizes their childhood was based on their adoptive parent's fantasy and not reality, the adoptee's life was based on childhood lies. 

Friday, February 19, 2016

The Vilified Adopted Child's Face Is their Biological Parent's Face

ADOPTEE RAGE!

The Vilified Adopted Child's Face Is their Biological Parent's Face
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To the emotionally immature adoptive parent, the adopted child is seen as unfamiliar to the biological family that adopted the child. The adopted child relationship can not be assumed. The biological offspring relationship can be assumed, as it is a continuation of the biological parent's offspring in their life cycle. 

The adopted child's biological parent is the villain that may steal their adopted child back, this fear theme of all adoptive parents that lives constantly within them.   

As the adopted child grows from a stereotypical infant to a toddler, to young childhood, as their physical appearance begins to reveal the villain of their biological parent's genetics, that the adoptive parent resents, hates and fears, now has a real face to attach the anger and dreadful emotions to.

The adopted child's face becomes the visual representation and embodiment of the bad biological parents, the adopted child becomes the very person that the adoptive mother resents, fears and hates, although she never before knew what they looked like. Now the bad biological parent is staring the adoptive mother in the face through the adopted child's face. 

This scenario plays out in the adopted child's adolescence where the adopted child is struggling to form a true identity outside of the"adopted child role" that has been forced on the child by the adoptive parent's unrealistic expectations and need for emotional pacification by their adopted child.

The adoptive parents can see now what the biological parents look like, yet the adopted child can not, as when the adopted child looks in the mirror all they can see is a stranger. Without biological mirroring the biological child is blind to who they are. 

Wednesday, February 17, 2016

What My Narcissistic Adoptive Mother Gave to Me

ADOPTEE RAGE!

What the Adoptive Mother's Narcissism Created In Me
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LINK To Full Article:
narcissismschild.com/2014/09/29/adult-children-of-narcissistic-parents-and-fear/


Why You’re Afraid of Your Narcissistic Parent

You may not think of your narcissistic parent this way, but she’s an abuser. Maybe there was no physical or sexual abuse in your home, but there was plenty of emotional abuse. Research indicates that emotional abuse is as bad, if not worse, than physical and sexual abuse. And you suffered it for 18 years or more.
Examples of emotional abuse include the following:
  • Ignoring: This is when the parent literally ignores the child. She doesn’t answer his cries. She doesn’t respond to him. And when she calls the child, she may not use his or her name.
  • Rejecting: The parent literally turns a cold shoulder to her child. She will not respond to any of the child’s needs whether he or she be hurt, hungry, injured, etc. The parent may refuse to touch the child and ridicule him or her while the child is in distress.
  • Isolating: Here the narcissistic parent cuts the child off from the world. The child is denied contact with friends, family and/or adults. Children may be literally confined to a room or closet.
  • Verbally Assaulting: The child undergoes a constant barrage of shaming, ridiculing, belittling, and threats.
  • Terrorizing: The parent creates a climate of fear for the child to live in. She does this by bullying and through threats. The parent may set unbending or unrealistic expectations on the child and threaten to harm the child if he or she doesn’t meet the expectations. Another form is placing something the child loves—pet, sibling, or toy—in a dangerous situation.
But rather than giving us the gift of compassionate and loving parenting, our narcissistic parents gave us scars that no one can see. Instead of the gifts above, our parents handed us:
  • Self-doubt
  • A lack of confidence
  • The inability to know what we want
  • An inability to express our needs
  • A belief that expressing our needs will lead to rejection
  • An inability to make a decision on things we figure out we want
  • An enduring sense of guilt about everything we do
  • Feeling bad about ourselves
  • An inability to assert ourselves
  • An inability to see our own value
  • A habit of accepting what we don’t want
  • Being trained to follow others and their wishes
  • A habit of taking on two much responsibility
  • A habit of sacrificing for the benefit of others
  • A belief that we have to present ourselves as inferior and nonthreatening to others
  • A mindset that allows us to be frequently taken advantage of
  • A habit of landing in unbalanced relationships where we give more than we receive
  • Always feeling we are on the verge of “getting in trouble”
  • A fear that individuals and organizations with power will use it to abuse us
  • A fear that if we say something we’ll be told we’re wrong
  • A fear of taking risks
  • A habit of trying to remain invisible to protect ourselves
  • Difficulty with self-care
  • Difficulty with life skills
  • Feeling that we’re stuck in childhood no matter how old we are
  • Feeling powerless
  • Feeling loss
  • Feeling afraid
  • Difficulty buying what we need 

Replicating the Miserable Adoptive Childhood

ADOPTEE RAGE!

Replicating the Misery of Adopted Childhood In Adulthood
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In the adult life of the psychologically abused adopted child, Psychology theory states: that we are unconsciously replacing 
our abusive adoptive parent with an equally abusive and similar in their personality flaws in an abusing spouse. 
The reason we unconsciously trade one abuser for another is to win over the cruel parent and prove that they love us by installing a substitute. Although the repetitious pattern of our involvement in the abuse cycle always ends in failure.

One Key Difference: I always dreaded, feared and hated my abusive adoptive mother. The overall theme in my abusive adoption relationship that I was always told and believed that 
I did not fit in. I Knew deep down inside that I was nothing like these angry people. The way they quickly reacted with anger and raged about anything that occurred, before obtaining any facts on the situation. The way that my adoptive parents treated people one way to their face and how they acted the opposite way in their absence. The obvious fact of the parent's new friends were seen for a short time, then gone forever and we weren't supposed to bring it up the "falling-Out" or why we never saw them again. I knew I was like one of those people that was allowed to stay around as long as they allowed it. 
I always knew that I was not like them, the behavior patterns, the repetitive narratives, and this fact was reinforced by my exclusion and isolation from family activities. The obvious scenarios and the players in each play were consistent chaos that had a repeating pattern that still plays on today although I have been replaced many times over. I have never tried to win my angry adoptive mother over as an adult. I seek distance and the isolation from the abuse that still plays out over and over in my head in their absence. I always knew that I had a mother and father of my own, out there, somewhere but one consistent theme in my head is that "mother's are bad" keeps me from needing to connect on a personal level. Keeps me emotionally distant from welcoming vulnerability and new rejections as I am quite comfortable. Safe in my belief that all adoptive mothers are selfish, cruel and dominating to adopted children. One narcissistic adoptive mother is enough to last my lifetime, I certainly do not want a substitute.

Saturday, February 13, 2016

Reactive Attachment Disorder Adopted Child

ADOPTEE RAGE!

Reactive Attachment Disorder Adopted Child
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The Comfort In Being Alone

Adopted children have been conditioned from their own traumatic experience of birth separation, that forces the newborn infant nine-months prematurely, to recognize themselves as a separate entity that is deprived of their biological bond that constitutes the foundation of RAD. 

The sad and lifelong consequence for the adopted child is the biological and psychological manifestation from being denied their biological bond. The symptoms that adoptive parents observe with great offense, has been identified by psychologists
as Reactive Attachment Disorder.

I was one of those children, along with months of alternating foster homes to prevent bonding until my adoption where my adoptive mother was so filled with grief over her own stillborn child that she refused to attempt bonding with me. Yet I was already conditioned with RAD and cemented in place forever..

As an adult nearing 50, I have always found comfort in being alone. In adopted childhood I was always alone in my room, alone playing by myself outside, and psychologically alone in my mind as I have always been....As I am the most comfortable in the world without being forced to interact with the outside world.

I had to give birth twice to create my own vague, minute comprehension of and distant understanding of what it means to be connected to another human being which was completely foreign and at odds with my life experience. 

I sought the assistance of weekly psychotherapy for many years to help me to relate to my offspring, learn how to parent my helpless young children and learn how to NOT abuse my young daughters. My relationship with my biological sister has changed my life for the better as I am seen for who I really am in her eyes. My relationship with my mother's sister is much harder to process, comprehend and is slow to evolve in her understanding of me and my understanding of her yet she is vital to my first childhood identity development at 50 years old. My mother and father have been so emotionally damaged by my adoption that they can never repair or recover from their years of torment, sorrow, shame and their own childhood abuse experiences continue to haunt them to the point that they can never be healed. But knowing their faults has healed my own suffering, pain and sorrow....But not my Reactive Attachment Disorder as it is part of my conscious and unconscious, it guides me in truth and away from playing the dysfunctional relationship games that my adoptive family still enjoys, with the scapegoat position still empty from the absent game player that doesn't want to play anymore, due to psychotherapy, psychology education and the self-worth that was earned by refusing to play the game. 

I find that many online forums for adoptive parents seeking resources and other's adoptive parent experiences, live in denial of the scientifically expected problems statistically seen in adopted children. The traumatic manifestations from separating a mother from her offspring and the predictable cause and effect of RAD seem normal to me as I live RAD each day of my life.

When I am forced to attend one of my spouses six generational family functions, I spend the previous day making up excuses why I can not attend. The day of the "public" event I am anxious, sweating, talking myself out of going, and on the way to the party I begin to shake. Once at the gathering I make my way through the talking heads and get myself to an empty room or go outside to hide from the group near my car to smoke a pack of cigarettes alone. When I finally make my escape back home I need several hours to decompress from the emotional over stimulation that feels like I was forced to endure, like it was my punishment for being anti-social...But that is how I was conditioned.  That fear I feel when forced to be around more than one person at a time is overwhelming to my senses and exhausts my ability to think. As being in the situation where verbal exchanges are not based in honesty, the verbal interactions are based on acquaintance type talk about the happy and pleasant now....A concept that I find repulsive and wasteful of my time as I do not have a happy or pleasant presence if I have to spend my time pretending to fit in to a family that is not my own. A concept that I am very familiar with, and have spend my life distancing myself from this type of pretentious acting the "adopted child's role" to be seen as temporarily acceptable in that moment in time.  

I live RAD everyday, I am RAD and that is how they made me.
I was forced into RAD as a lifestyle and know my limits as a person. I know why I shutter when the phone rings, why I begin to shake when I am around people that want to destroy my psychological health. As my psychological awareness can never be part of the abused adopted child's place in the dysfunctional adoptive family, as they need me to be psychologically ignorant and accept my place back in their sick game called "the award winning adoptive family."

How Being Adopted Can Save Your Soul

ADOPTEE RAGE!

How Being Adopted Can Save Your Soul
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I was adopted to replace my adoptive mother's grief over her stillborn child. I was a terrible mistake to them, the poor legal "paper" orphan and the adoptive family's outsider. I grew up sleeping in every bar and restaurant in our small town, so alcoholism and drunk driving was normal family life to me as a child. The chaos of my adoptive parent's home was constantly unpredictable if fighting, punching or I'm in trouble because I was in the way and was punished for it.

What I am getting at is that I always knew that these angry, scary, dysfunctional and unpredictable adoptive family was NOT my people. I was NOT like them and my terrible imitation of trying to fit in with them was a complete fraud. The adoptive parents never made the mistake of believing that I was one of them, that Is why they kept me isolated from them, their family activities that I was never allowed to participate in.

My saving grace was each time that my adoptive mother struck me in the face, in her disgust all that I could see was the cruel enemy. Never a maternal kindness, just a forced pacification that was intended to make my adoptive mother not feel so bad, never was the intention for my benefit. As a teenager with a first time growing friendship base, gave me the courage to want to survive my adoptive family. I began to immaturely hatch plans for my escape from the adoptive mother forever.

Although I neither had the tools or the mental capacity to be gone without the help of outsiders, the outsiders took me in.
When I was settled into a new life, a job and my independence
my adoptive mother came to my job to reclaim my soul. Again and again throughout my adult life we played cat and mouse until the time that I decided that I didn't want to play anymore.

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

FRAUDULENT Personality Development In Adopted Child

ADOPTEE RAGE!

FRAUDULENT Personality Development In Adopted Child
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The disturbing status quote of our pro-adoption-biased society is to blame for the plight of adopted children, the unfavorable outcomes and the places that the adopted population will end up in, such as prison, mental hospitals and suicide victims.
The pro-adoption-culture's force of psychological manipulation creates the self-fulfilling prophecy of psychological warfare against the innocent adopted infant known as the adoption paradox. 
The adopted child is forced to endure "unrealistic, unnatural and forced expectations" while simultaneously swallowing their genetic personality, biological traits, talents, natural abilities.

The adopted child is taught to DENY their natural spontaneous self, feelings, true emotions ant personal attributes in their attempt to conform, copy and "be continually like" their adoptive parents to stay in favor.

Biologically raised children are raised from birth by the constant natural exchange of biological mirroring between mother and child. This teaches the biological infant to be intuitively aware and as is a known fact, that they are like, the same as their biological parents. 
The foundation of biological mirroring teaches the child offspring of their personal identity, intergenerational biological identity and automatic place in their biological family hierarchy. 
To know the foundation of the self identity, gives the child the freedom to explore his/her individual identity that leads to self actualization in adulthood.

Adopted individuals are deprived of the biological mirroring that lays their foundation for the self, they are denied their original names and given a new false name, and are expected to form their identity based on false presumptions, lies and deceptions.
The lies and deceptions that make up the adopted child's identity, teaches the adopted child to live the lie of false adopted identity which is expected by society to sustain the adopted person for life. 
When your foundation in life is based on deception, your self knowledge is based on denial of adoption loss, and the identity is formed based on inaccurate facts....A false identity forms that constitutes a false personality that is created to fit in and not be rejected. 

"There can be no authentic personality in the adopted child that has been created by the deceptive tactics of adoptive parents".

Genetics

Twin and adoption studies have demonstrated that the heritability of personality traits ranges from .3-.6, with a mean of .5. Heritability of .5 means that 50% of variation in observable personality traits is attributable to genetic influences. But a given genotype will lead to a certain phenotype only under the right environmental circumstances. In other words, the heritability of a trait may change depending on an individual’s environment and/or life events. An example of the way environment can moderate the expression of a gene is the finding by Heath, Eaves, and Martin (1998) that marriage was a protective factor against depression in genetically identical twins, such that the heritability of depression was as low as 29% in a married twin and as high as 51% in an unmarried twin. Ultimately, emerging evidence suggests that genetic and environmental influences on personality differ depending on other circumstances in a person’s life.

Environmental

With the effects of genetic similarity are removed, children from the same family often appear no more alike than randomly selected strangers; yet identical twins raised apart are nearly as similar in personality as identical twins raised together. What these findings suggest is that shared family environment has virtually no effect on personality development, and that similarity between relatives is almost entirely due to shared genetics. Although the shared environment (including features like the personality, parenting styles, and beliefs of parents; socioeconomic status; neighborhood; nutrition; schools attended; number of books in the home; etc.) may have a lasting impact at the extremes of parenting practice, such as outright abuse, most personality researchers have concluded that the majority of “average expectable environments do not have an effect on personality development.
The weakness of shared environmental effects in shaping personality came as a surprise to many psychologists, and spurred research into nonshared environment, or the environmental influences that make siblings different from one another instead of similar. Nonshared environmental effects encompass the variability in behavioral outcomes that is not explained by genetic and family environmental influences. The nonshared environment may include differential treatment by parents, individually distinct reactions to the shared family environment, peer influences, and experiences that occur outside the family.
 In adults, nonshared environment also encompasses the unique roles and environments experienced after leaving the family of origin. Further effects of environment in adulthood are demonstrated by findings that different work, marital, and family experiences are associated with personality change, and by the impact of major positive and negative life events on personality.

Gene-environment interactions

Van Gestel and Van Broeckhoven (2003) write, “Almost by definition, complex traits originate from interplay between (multiple) genetic factors and environment. Interactions between genetic predisposition and the environment are a major factor in personality development. The corresponsive principle of personality developmentstates that “life experiences may accentuate and reinforce the personality characteristics that were partially responsible for the particular environmental elicitations in the first place”. This principle is summarizes how gene-environment interactions (also called person-situation transactions) maintain and reinforce the continuity of personality throughout the lifespan. Three main types of gene-environment interactions are active (the process by which individuals with certain genotypes select and create environments that facilitate the expression of those genotypes), passive(the process by which genetic parents provide both the genes and the early environmental influences that contribute to the development of a characteristic in their children), and reactive (the process by which non-family individuals respond to the behavior produced by a genotype in characteristic ways).

Personality development is defined as the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguish individuals from one another. The dominant view in the field of personality psychology today holds that personality emerges early and continues to change in meaningful ways throughout the lifespan. Evidence from large-scale, long-term studies has supported this perspective.


Adult personality traits are believed to have a basis in infant temperament, meaning that individual differences in disposition and behavior appear early in life, possibly even before language or conscious self-representation develop. the five factor model of personality has been found to map onto dimensions of childhood temperament, suggesting that individual differences in levels of the “big five” personality traits (neurotic-ism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are present from young ages.