About Adoptee Rage

Statistics Identify large populations of Adoptees in prisons, mental hospitals and committed suicide.
Fifty years of scientific studies on child adoption resulting in psychological harm to the child and
poor outcomes for a child's future.
Medical and psychological attempts to heal the broken bonds of adoption, promote reunions of biological parents and adult children. The other half of attempting to repair a severed Identity is counselling therapy to rebuild the self.

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Emotional Labor & Emotional Dissonance In Adopted Children


Emotional Labor & Emotional Dissonance In Adopted Children

The infant adopted child comes to the adoptive parent traumatized with birth separation trauma. The adopted infant is sold into indentured service through the adoption industry, to perform a specific vocational task, requiring the adopted child's emotional labor to the performance of the "Adopted Child Role". The child is not a paid contractor, but an unpaid employee that is expected to be grateful for such a position of ill treatment in being subjected to the emotional cruelty and punishment known as child adoption. 

The adopted child's abandonment trauma suffered, insures that the desperate attachment and emotional blackmail will keep the adopted child extremely needy that they spontaneously perform the adopted child role spontaneously among adopted children in young childhood. 

"DA" Deep Acting & "SA" Surface Acting have been identified as levels of emotional labor that the adopted child will perform their vocation of the adopted child role. The resulting problem and impact of "Emotional Dissonance" will not be seen until the adolescent phase in the adopted child, when the magnitude of the adoption is understood by the adopted child and the adoption's impact to the adoptee is personally, emotionally and psychologically understood. 

The consequences on Adoptee's from the childhood years of forced emotional acting for the purpose of survival, to avoid subsequent abandonment and the ambitiousness in the drive to remain an outsider in a closed biological connected group is not universally understood that the result may be related to guilt.

Below two psychological studies of the consequences of forced emotional labor and the impact on emotional regulation and dysregulation that is prevalent among individuals forced into emotional labor jobs that receive wages, although adopted children receive no wages, no guarantees for opportunity such as college or training for their free indentured service.

Emotional labor

Emotional labor is a requirement of a job that employees display required emotions toward customers or others. More specifically, emotional labor comes into play during communication between worker and citizen and between worker and worker. This includes analysis and decision making in terms of the expression of emotion, whether actually felt or not, as well as its opposite: the suppression of emotions that are felt but not expressed. Roles that have been identified as requiring emotional labor include but not limited to those involved in public service, as well as most roles in a hotel, motel, food service, as well as jobs in the media, such as TV and radio. As particular economies move from a manufacturing to a service based economy, many more workers in a variety of occupational fields are expected to manage their emotions according to employer demands when compared to sixty years ago.
The sociologist Hochschild provides the first definition of emotional labor, which is a form of emotion regulation that creates a publicly visible facial and bodily display within the workplace. The related term emotion work (also called "emotion management") refers to "these same acts done in a private context," such as within the private sphere of one’s home or interactions with family and friends. There are three types of emotion work: cognitive, bodily, and expressive. Within cognitive emotion work, one attempts to change images, ideas, or thoughts in hopes of changing the feelings associated with them. For example, one may associate a family picture with feeling happy and think about said picture whenever attempting to feel happy. Within bodily emotion work, one attempts to change physical symptoms in order to create a desired emotion. For example, one may attempt deep breathing in order to reduce anger. Within expressive emotion work, one attempts to change expressive gestures to change inner feelings. For example, one may attempt to smile when trying to feel happy. One becomes aware of emotion work most often when one’s feelings do not fit the situation. For instance, when one does not feel sad at a funeral, one becomes acutely aware of the feelings appropriate for that situation.
While emotion work happens within the private sphere, emotional labor is emotion management within the workplace according to employer expectations. According to Hochschild (1983), the emotion management by employers creates a situation in which this emotion management can be exchanged in the marketplace. According to Hochschild (1983), jobs involving emotional labor are defined as those that:
  1. require face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact with the public.
  2. require the worker to produce an emotional state in another person.
  3. allow the employer, through training and supervision, to exercise a degree of control over the emotional activities of employees.
Hochschild (1983) argues that within this commodification process, service workers are estranged from their own feelings in the workplace.

Determinants of using emotional labor

  1. Societal, occupational, and organizational norms. For example, empirical evidence indicates that in typically "busy" stores there is more legitimacy to express negative emotions, than there is in typically "slow" stores, in which employees are expected to behave accordingly to the display rules; and so, that the emotional culture to which one belongs influences the employee's commitment to those rules.
  1. Dispositional traits and inner feeling on the job; such as employee's emotional expressiveness, which refers to the capability to use facial expressions, voice, gestures, and body movements to transmit emotions; or the employee's level of career identity (the importance of the career role to one's self-identity), which allows him or her to express the organizationally-desired emotions more easily, (because there is less discrepancy between his or her expressed behavior and emotional experience when engage their work).
  2. Supervisory regulation of display rules; That is, supervisors are likely to be important definers of display rules at the job level, given their direct influence on worker's beliefs about high-performance expectations. Moreover, supervisors' impressions of the need to suppress negative emotions on the job influence the employees' impressions of that display rule.

Emotional Labor vs. Cognitive Work

Cognitive skills and emotion work skills are separate but related dimensions for successful job performance. The former includes the application of factual knowledge to the intellectual analysis for problems and rational decision making. The latter includes analysis and decision making in terms of the expression of emotion, whether actually felt or not, as well as its opposite: the suppression of emotions that are felt but not expressed. More specifically, emotional labor comes into play during communication between worker and citizens, and it requires the rapid-fire execution of, emotive sensing, analyzing, judging, and behaving.
Emotive Sensing: Detecting the affective state of the other and using that information to array one's own alternative in terms of how to respond.
Analyzing: One's own affective state and comparing it to that of the other.
Judging: Alternative responses will affect the other, then selecting the best alternative.
Behaving: Worker suppresses or expresses an emotion- in order to elicit a desired response from the other.

Surface and Deep Acting

Original description of this emotion management process, researchers have focused on surface acting and deep acting as the primary strategies that employees use to regulate their emotions. Surface acting involves a “faking” process through which outward expressions are altered, yet internal feelings are left intact (2013).Conversely, deep acting is an effortful process through which employees change their internal feelings to align with organizational expectations, producing more natural and genuine emotional displays (Grandey et al., 2013) (3). Although the underlying regulatory processes involved in each approach differ, the objective of both, is typically to show positive emotions, which are presumed to impact the feelings of customers and bottom-line outcomes (e.g., sales, positive recommendations, and repeat business; Pugh, 2001; Tsai, 2001). However, as previously mentioned, research generally has found surface acting to be more consistently problematic for employee well-being than deep acting (Grandey, 2003; Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011).
The regulation of emotional expressions and feelings as part of the paid work role has been coined emotional labour (EL) (Hochschild, 1983). EL is necessitated when expected workplace emotions cannot be naturally felt or displayed, and is routinely performed using surface acting (SA) and deep acting (DA) (Hochschild, 1983). SA involves the management of observable expressions. SA can include faking emotions not actually felt, along with suppressing and hiding felt emotion that would be inappropriate to display. For example, a customer service representative may hide feelings of anger from a rude or demanding customer and instead paste on a smile to ensure a smooth workplace interaction. Hochschild commented that "in surface acting, we deceive others about what we really feel but we do not deceive ourselves" (p.33).
DA, on the other hand, is the intrapsychic process of attempting to experience or alter feelings so that expected emotional displays may naturally follow. DA may be performed by actively exhorting feeling, wherein an individual cognitively attempts to evoke or suppress an emotion. For example, flight attendants were trained to cognitively reappraise disorderly adult passengers as children so as not to become infuriated with their seemingly infantile behaviour (Hochschild, 1983). Another DA strategy, trained imagination, focuses on invoking thoughts, images and memories to induce the desired emotion (e.g., thinking of a funny experience in order to feel happy). This technique is comparable to the way that actors trained in method acting (Stanislovsky method) ‘psyche themselves up' for a performance. DA then, if successful, is able to produce an authentic emotional display.

Consequences of emotional labour

Given that people experience a wide range of emotions during any given workday, emotions that are felt and those that are required may not always be congruent with each other. When such a mismatch occurs, an employee may choose to ignore the prescribed display rules and express genuine emotions during stressful encounters. Such emotional deviance may be detrimental to one's wellbeing, however, especially if the employee identifies with the occupation and its display rules (e.g., a counsellor's curt response to a client). On other occasions, there may be a discrepancy between expressed and felt emotions, creating the experience of emotional dissonance, which has been associated with a range of negative psychological outcomes (Zapf, 2002).
Because SA leads to inauthentic emotional displays, unlike DA that produces an authentic display albeit with more effort, most academic attention has been focused towards the negative effects of SA on the individual. Along with feelings of inauthenticity, SA exerts its pernicious effects through emotional dissonance, resource depletion, and emotional estrangement from others and oneself. For example, SA has been linked to negative psychological and physical health outcomes including burnout in the form of increased emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, reduced personal accomplishment, job dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, psychosomatic complaints, and intentions to resign (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Grandey, 2000; Montgomery, et al., 2005, 2006). These effects often remain, even after controlling for demand-control variables, suggesting that SA exerts its effects independent of other work stressors (Näring, et al., 2006). Recent research has also found a link between SA and work-family interference. As one counselling psychologist known to the first author so eloquently stated, "When I get home from a hard day's work with clients, I leave empathy at the door". Other psychologists have also revealed that they can become emotionally distant and detached at the end of the workday. This depletion of emotional resources can leave little energy for domestic duties and attending to personal relationships, which may inevitably cause strain. 

Individual and organisational remedies

The mismatch between felt emotion and what an employee is required to display (i.e., feeling angry, but having to display cheerfulness) can be a draining aspect of the EL process. Thus, it is important that organisations select people with the aim of achieving the best person-job fit. A useful way to accomplish this task may be to use personality tests that measure trait affectivity. For example, applicants who demonstrate a high level of positive affectivity would be considered a good job fit for service-oriented occupations. Linking the person to the emotional job requirements could save costs associated with absenteeism and turnover.
Much of the stress involved with SA is the discrepancy between felt and displayed emotions (i.e., feeling angry, but having to fake happiness as part of the work role). This causes feelings of inauthenticity and does nothing to reduce emotional dissonance. Thus, training people to DA may be a valuable organisational tool. People could use DA strategies such as trained imagination, to ‘psyche themselves up' before entering their work role, to ensure that their emotional displays are genuine. Moreover, using roleplay situations to teach reappraisal or cognitive reframing skills could be another useful strategy to teach people how to transform emotions, and to handle emotionally difficult situations without becoming overwhelmed. This would lead to a greater sense of personal accomplishment when they are able to successfully deal with emotionally demanding situations.
Because EL can drain emotional resources and cause burnout, recovery from work is necessary to protect individuals' health and wellbeing in the long run. Recovery refers to the process during which an individual's functioning returns to its pre-stressor level. This can be reflected in both psychological detachment from work, low fatigue and undisturbed sleep. If recovery is not successful, wellbeing will be affected and the individual starts the working day in a suboptimal state.
Successful recovery after work occurs when wellbeing improves, and resources drawn upon during the strain process are restored (Sonnentag & Natter, 2004). Thus, off-job time activities (e.g., playing a sport, going to the gym, etc.) that offer the opportunity to recover from job stress and to replenish depleted resources should be incorporated into HR management systems.
The effort-recovery model (Meijman & Mulder, 1998) suggests that the core mechanism through which recovery at work occurs is the temporary relief from demands placed on the individual. Emotionally demanding jobs that offer regular scheduled breaks and time-out rooms where people can emotionally vent are necessary for the health and wellbeing of workers. The conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) also suggests that social support at work is a vital process in restoring emotional resources. For psychologists, for example, the supervision process can be a valuable time to decompress by releasing pent-up emotions caused by work stressors. Thus, regular supervision with a trusted colleague or advisor can be important in the recovery process.
Researchers have argued that emotional regulation should be properly rewarded based on the theories of compensating wage differentials and human capital (Glomb, et al., 2004). However, due to the failure by traditional job evaluation systems to adequately measure and compensate for emotional labour in monetary terms (Steinberg, 1999), organisations should consider using formal and informal rewards and recognition as a symbol of appreciation for the emotional effort exerted by employees. Indeed, if service organisations wish to attract and retain high performing employees they must be compensated accordingly. Traditional job evaluation tools may also need to be updated to ensure that emotional labour demands are taken into

Emotional labor and psychological strain reactions

Hochschild  noted that emotional labor may cause repeated stress. This applies particularly when the expression of emotions is required that are incompatible with the emotions experienced in a situation. Hochschild called this state “emotional dissonance”, and hypothesised that it is generally regulated by surface acting emotional regulation strategies. Accordingly, Gross  argued that the relationship between emotional dissonance and psychological strain may be explained by the cost of response-focused regulation. This means that individuals who often experience emotional dissonance and use response focused-regulation/surface acting are more at risk to suffer from negative health outcomes. Gross quotes several studies that have shown that the use of response-focused emotional regulation is associated with elevated physical activation processes: such as, increased pulse frequency, body temperature and skin conductance. These activation processes may lead to physical, as well as mental health impairments, when they occur over longer periods of time.
Morris and Feldman have proposed that the potential of emotional work to result in psychological strain depends highly on the duration, frequency, intensity and variety of interactions with other people. The factors that influence how often and how intensely employees experience emotional dissonance and have to perform emotion regulation may contribute the level of experienced psychological strain and burnout. The cost of such regulatory processes shall be regarded in more detail in the next section.

The role of emotional dissonance and emotional control

A study conducted by Diestel and Schmidt demonstrated that emotional dissonance requires employees to exert self-control. Self-control involves inhibiting, modifying, or overriding spontaneous and automatic reactions, urges, emotions, and desires that would otherwise interfere with goal directed behaviour and impede goal achievement at work. Such self-control activity draws on and, in turn, depletes regulatory resources.
These associations have been shown in a series of experiments by Baumeister and his colleagues. These studies required participants of an experiment group to perform two successive tasks of which each demanded the participants to exert self-control. The performance (for example, the persistence in working on an unsolvable puzzle) in the second task was always impaired in participants in the experiment group, as compared to a control group that had performed a task without any self-control demands before. Some of these experiments investigated the particular effects of emotional control processes. In a study by Muraven and colleagues, in particular, participants were asked to show no emotional reaction to a movie that was intended by the research team to evoke strong emotional reactions, whilst the members of a control group had not received any such instructions. The study observed that participants that had to control their emotions showed significantly poorer performance in a following self-control task.
Research on the practical implications of self-control depletion in the workplace has found that high self-control demands are related to long-term strain consequences: such as, burnout, depression and absenteeism. This relationship is amplified when the self-control capacity of a person is low. The results of these preliminary studies begin to shed light on the observed associations between emotional dissonance with burnout; as well as, with other strain indicators. When self-control is needed frequently to overcome emotional dissonance, regulatory resources are depleted and negative long-term consequences will occur.
Abraham and Coté have stressed the importance of moderating resources in the relationship between emotional dissonance and psychological strain. Abraham  found social support social support to moderate the relationship between emotional dissonance and job satisfaction. Cheung and Tang  found that the effects of emotional dissonance on burnout are even mediated by work resources; suggesting that the experience of emotional dissonance may only lead to strain when employees lack work resources like satisfying work relations and job reward.

Emotional dissonance, strain reactions and organisational outcomes: Research results on relationships

The relationship between emotional dissonance and strains to the individual, as well as with several organisational outcomes, has been demonstrated in several studies. The current section aims to outline some of these results.
A study by Heuven and Bakker  found that the structural discrepancy between inner feelings and emotional display rules was the main predictor of burnout complaints in a sample of cabin attendants. Other demands, such as quantitative job demands and lack of job control, were observed to be less important predictors. Zapf and Holz  found a similar significant relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout in a sample of service workers. Abraham  demonstrated relationships of emotional dissonance with job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion. A study among Chinese service employees confirmed the findings on the relationship between emotional dissonance and job dissatisfaction, and also found emotional dissonance to predict general work strain.
Apart from the relationships with detrimental health outcomes emotional dissonance has also been found to be related to organisational outcomes. Abrahams  showed correlations of emotional dissonance with organizational commitment and intention to turnover. Bakker and Heuven  found that also in-role performance in a sample of nurses and police officers was related to emotional dissonance.