Psychoneuroimmunology...Proving Child Abuse Effects In Adult Adoptee Diseases
The immune-brain loop
- the acute-phase reaction
- Sickness behavior
- the pain program
- the stress response
Understanding Stress and Immune Function
Communication between the brain and immune function
- Stimulation of brain sites alters immunity (stressed animals have altered immune systems).
- Damage to brain hemispheres alters immunity (hemispheric lateralization effects).
- Immune cells produce cytokines that act on the CNS.
- Immune cells respond to signals from the CNS.
Communication between neuroendocrine and immune system
- Glucocorticoids and catecholamines influence immune cells.
- Endorphins from pituarary & adreal medulla act on immune system.
- Activity of the immune system is correlated with neurochemical/neuroendocrine activity of brain cells.
Connections between glucocorticoids and immune system
- Anti-inflammatory hormones that enhance the organism's response to a stressor.
- Prevent the overreaction of the body's own defense system.
- Regulators of the immune system.
- Affect cell growth, proliferation & differentiation.
- Cause immunosuppression.
- Suppress cell adhesion, antigen presentation, chemotaxis & cytotoxicity.
- Increase apoptosis.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
- CRH is a major regulator of the HPA axis/stress axis.
- CRH Regulates secretion of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
- CRH is widely distributed in the brain and periphery
- CRH also regulates the actions of the Autonomic nervous system ANS and immune system.
- Central mediated since peripheral administration of CRH antagonist does not affect immunosuppression.