- Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drives and emotions)
- Humans have inherent tendency toward growth development and integrated functioning
- Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they don’t happen automatically
- Seek to control the outcome and experience mastery
- Is the universal want to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for others
- Is the universal urge to be causal agents of one's own life and act in harmony with one's integrated self; however, Deci and Vansteenkiste note this does not mean to be independent of others
- Externally regulated behaviour: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control.
- Introjected regulation of behaviour: describes taking on regulations to behaviour but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan claim such behaviour normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections. This is the kind of behaviour where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self-worth. While this is internally driven Deci and Ryan say introjected behaviour is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren’t perceived as part of self.
- Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important.
- Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in a person's self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this, integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.
Basic needs and intrinsic motivation
- Autonomous Orientations: result from satisfaction of the basic needs
- Strong controlled orientations: Result from satisfaction of competence and relatedness needs but not of autonomy and is linked to regulation through internal and external contingences, which lead to rigid functioning and diminished well being.
- Impersonal Orientations: Results from failing to fulfil all three needs. This is also related to poor functioning and ill being.
- Intrinsic Aspirations: Contain life goals like affiliation generativity and personal development.
- Extrinsic Aspirations: Have life goals like wealth, fame and attractiveness.