About Adoptee Rage

Statistics Identify large populations of Adoptees in prisons, mental hospitals and committed suicide.
Fifty years of scientific studies on child adoption resulting in psychological harm to the child and
poor outcomes for a child's future.
Medical and psychological attempts to heal the broken bonds of adoption, promote reunions of biological parents and adult children. The other half of attempting to repair a severed Identity is counselling therapy to rebuild the self.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Self Discrepancy ,Imprinting Psychology,Sexual Attraction of Genetic Ties

Self-Discrepancy Theory, Imprinting Psychology, Genetic Sexual Attraction

The self-discrepancy theory was first developed by E. Tory Higgins in his work Self-Discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect in 1987. Self-discrepancy theory is a structure that helps bring understanding to the different types of negative emotions experienced by people who hold conflicting self-beliefs, or a discrepancy, about themselves (1).
This theory describes two different types self-images of the “actual self.” 
First, the “actual self” represents who a person actually is and second, represents the person that he or she believes that adoptive parents, adoptive family and the adoptive family ties in general believes him or her to actually be (1).
Besides the two actual selves, there are several other potential types of selves, such as the “spiritual” self, the “superego,” the “social” self, and the “ideal self.” The “spiritual” self and the “superego” consist of one’s morals, values, and conscience. The “social” self represents one’s hopes to be approved of and the “ideal self” represents what one wishes were true of themselves (1).

Types of self-discrepancies and quality of discomfort

In the self-discrepancy theory, there are two basic kinds of negative psychological situations that are associated with different kinds of emotional states. These are the absence of positive outcomes and the presence and persistent negative self observation or persistent negative observation from parent outcomes. 
The absence of positive outcomes is connected with emotions that are dejection-related or emotions such as disappointment, sadness and dissatisfaction. The presence of negative outcomes is linked with emotions that are agitation-related, which are emotions like anger, fear and anxiety (1).
The types of self-discrepancies come forth from the relation between one’s self-concept and one’s self-guide, which brings about the dejection-related emotions or agitation-related emotions (1).
The four types of negative psychological situations are:
1. Actual/own versus ideal/own: in this case, a person’s genuine attributes from their own standpoint does not fit the attributes that that person ideally desires to possess (1). This self-discrepancy causes the person to feel dejection-related emotions because there is an absence of positive outcomes (4). Therefore, feelings of disappointment, shame, or discontent may occur for the person with incongruent self-concepts. Feelings of frustration from goals or desires not being attained may also arise through this discrepancy (1).

Psychology Of Imprinting

In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase sensitive learning 
(learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. 
Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period in the first six years of life.

 Filial imprinting is not restricted to non-human animals that are able to follow their parents, however. In child development, the term is used to refer to the process by which a baby learns who its mother and father are. 

The process is recognized as beginning in the womb, when the unborn baby starts to recognize its parents' voices.__________________________________________________

Organizational Theory and Organizational Behavior, imprinting is a core concept describing how the past affects the present. 
The Parent's Imprinting is the strongest influence on a developing child birth-six years of age.
 Imprinting is generally defined as a process whereby, during a brief period of susceptibility, a focal entity or actor (such as an industry, organization, or an individual) develops characteristics that reflect prominent features of the environment, and these characteristics continue to persist despite significant environmental changes in subsequent periods. This definition emphasizes three key elements of imprinting:
  1. brief sensitive periods of transition during which the focal entity exhibits high susceptibility to external influences;
  2. a process whereby the focal entity comes to reflect elements of its environment during a sensitive period; and
  3. the persistence of imprints despite subsequent environmental changes.

Westermarck effect

Reverse sexual imprinting is also seen in instances where two people who live in domestic proximity during the first few years in the life of either one become desensitized to later close sexual attraction. This phenomenon, known as the Westermarck effect, was first formally described by Finnish Anthropologist Edvard Westermarck in his book The History of Human Marriage (1891). The Westermarck effect has since been observed in many places and cultures, including in the Israeli Kibbutz system, and the Chinese Shimpua marriage customs, as well as in biological-related families.
In the case of the Israeli kibbutzim (collective farms), children were reared somewhat communally in peer groups, based on age, not biological relation. A study of the marriage patterns of these children later in life revealed that out of the nearly 3,000 marriages that occurred across the kibbutz system, only fourteen were between children from the same peer group. Of those fourteen, none had been reared together during the first six years of life. 
This result provides evidence not only that the Westermarck effect is demonstrable but that it operates during the period from birth to the age of six.

When proximity during this critical period does not occur—for example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, never meeting one another—they may find one another highly sexually attractive when they meet as adults. This phenomenon is known as genetic sexual attraction. This observation supports the hypothesis that the Westermarck effect evolved because it suppressed inbreeding. This attraction may also be seen with cousin couples.