Evolution Of Parenting Biological Offspring
Link: en.wikipedia.org/evolutionary parenting
According to the Parental Investment Theory, mothers are inclined to provide optimal care for their offspring due to the certainty of a genetic relationship.
Women have adapted the ability to recognize infant facial expression of emotion, most especially negative emotion. This adaptation allows for the primary caretaker to develop a bond with their child leading to secure attachment during development. The "tend-and-befriend" hypothesis, which allows for the mother to care for and protect the child during detrimental situations, ensures offspring survival. Women are also able to create and maintain social networks that offer social protection for their offspring.
Grandmothers have evolved mechanisms that allow them to invest in their grandchildren. Menopause might be an adaptation for older women to invest in care of their offspring and their children's offspring. A desire to improve inclusive fitness allows maternal grandmothers, to invest the most since they are guaranteed that the child carries their genes. Biological Aunts will also invest more than uncles. Specifically maternal aunts will invest more than paternal aunts
Males have less investment in potential offspring and are inept in their nurturing skills due to a greater emphasis on genetic reproduction, because any children that their mate births may or may not be their own. This phenomenon is termed paternal insecurity. Research has shown that for this reason, fathers tend to invest more resources in children that look and smell like them. Studies have demonstrated that when an infant is first born, males will experience decreased testosterone levels, making them less likely to be abusive, to commit infidelity, or seek divorce. Increased levels of investment when a child is first born may be due to the fact that males want to protect their genes and assure the reproductive success of their offspring in order for their genes to be spread.